This is a medieval French dice game documented in the literature of the time
by Franz Semrau in his work Wurfel und Wurfelspiel im alten Frankreich (1910), a
scholarly account of references to dice games in medieval French literature. It is a
two-player game and the players agree at the beginning of the game to use one, two,
or three dice. The game takes place on a checkers, or chessboard with one player
taking the white squares, and the other the black squares. In order to count, a die
must land on the player’s color with no portion of the die trespassing on any of the
opponent’s squares. Only dice that land entirely within your own color are scored.
The scores on legal throws are totaled, and the first player to reach 101 points wins.
This 16th century game requires 3 dice, and any number of players. It begins
with the Caster rolling a single die. The players then decide what they believe will
be the outcome of rolling another die. Will it (A) equal 10, or lower, or (B) total 11,
or higher. Each player finds a partner who is willing to wager against them, and
they negotiate their individual bets. If there are more players wagering on one side
than the other, an individual may cover the wagers of more than one opponent, but
there is no obligation to do this. If no one is willing to wager on one side, or the
other, the Caster re-rolls the first die.
Once the bets are placed, the Caster rolls the second die. If the roll of the
second die brings the total to 11 or over, the players who wagered on that outcome
win, and the third die is not used. If the total is still below 10 the betting partnersmay increase the wagers if their opponent agrees. (Once the original bets are agreed
upon players cannot decrease their original wagers, nor are they allowed to change
sides.) The Caster then rolls the third die if necessary, and wagers are settled based
on the total of the three dice. The dice are then passed to a new Caster for the next
round. The Caster may also make wagers, but except for being the one to roll the
dice, the Caster has no advantages over other players.
– C. Knutson: Early Games of Dice (2010)